¿Qué pasa con mi piel si consumo mucha azúcar?

Por: Andrea Carvajal Nevado / Médico- dermatólogo / @dra_andrea_carvajal @ancapelli

El envejecimiento es un proceso multifactorial que resulta de una interacción compleja de varios factores y mecanismos como: los efectos de la luz ultravioleta, la acción de radicales libres, alimentación rica en azúcares, contaminación ambiental, restricción calórica.

El consumo alto de azúcares conlleva a un proceso denominado glicación, mediante el cual, la glucosa se une a proteínas, luego, se suceden cambios químicos que modifican su estructura.

Los productos finales de glicación avanzada (Advanced glycation End products: AGE) se forman al final de este tipo de reacción.

piel

La acumulación de AGE en los tejidos se ha asociado con varias enfermedades, entre ellas, diabetes mellitus, enfermedad renal, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y lo que más nos interesa en este artículo, el envejecimiento de la piel.

El proceso puede darse por el consumo de azúcar en la dieta, que luego se une covalentemente a un electrón de una molécula donante para formar un AGE. O por la cocción.

Estudios recientes han revelado que ciertos métodos de preparación de alimentos (es decir, a la parrilla, freír y asar) producen niveles mucho más altos niveles de AGE que los métodos de cocción a base de agua, como hervir y cocinar al vapor.

Como resultado, los fibroblastos pierden su capacidad de sintetizar proteínas estructurales, como el colágeno y elastina, así como otros factores importantes que apoyan la organización del colágeno.

El colágeno y elastina pierden su elasticidad, se vuelven rígidas, frágiles y fáciles de romperse. La piel puede adquirir color cetrino y mate (efecto kusumi).

Factores que aceleran la formación de productos finales de glicación avanzada (AGE)

  • Envejecimiento.
  • Hiperglicemia.
  • Obesidad.
  • Insuficiencia renal crónica.
  • Estrés oxidativo e inflamación crónica.
  • Dieta.
  • Luz ultravioleta.
  • Tabaquismo.

¿Cómo evitar la formación de AGE?

  • Disminuir el consumo de comidas fritas. No repetir aceites ya usados.
  • Elige preparar la comida al vapor.
  • Intenta el consumo de resveratrol, potente antioxidante. Se encuentra en uvas, arándano y mora).
  • Consume lo menos posible azúcares refinados.
  • Prueba la dieta mediterránea, ésta disminuye los niveles de AGE.
  • Elimina el cigarrillo.
  • Protégete del sol.

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