¿Qué hago? Tengo un Ataque de Pánico

Quienes lo padecen han descrito el ataque de pánico como una respuesta inesperada de miedo intenso acompañada de reacciones físicas desagradables, que se presenta con frecuencia durante la noche o al despertar experimentando sensación de perder el control, de volverse loco/a e inclusive sienten miedo a morir. La tasa cardíaca aumenta, hay dificultad para respirar, hiperventilación, aumento de la temperatura y temblor, entre otros síntomas. La sensación puede ser tan intensa que requiera hospitalización, pero después de la revisión médica, éste le dirá: “tranquilo/a ud no se va a morir, tiene un ataque de pánico”.

¿Qué hago? Tengo un Ataque de Pánico - www.mariangelruiz.com

La literatura científica señala que el 30% de la población sufre solo uno o dos ataques de pánico en toda su vida, tal vez pueda resolverse sin atención especializada o al desaparecer la situación que nos inquieta. Sin embargo, si estos ataques se repiten y pasas mucho tiempo con miedo a sufrir otro ataque, es probable que desarrolles un “trastorno de pánico”.

Científicamente se ubica dentro de los trastornos de ansiedad y se pueden producir también acompañando otra alteración psicológica y algunas afecciones médicas.

Las causas se desconocen, pero hay factores biológicos, de estrés y ambientales que juegan un papel clave. Es más frecuente en mujeres que en hombres, sin embargo en los últimos años, hay un aumento de este padecimiento en adolescentes y la franja más vulnerable está entre los 21 y 30 años. Pero vale la pena resaltar que la pandemia o emergencia sanitaria ha hecho que este evento se produzca en una parte importante de la población, incluso en persona que no tenían antecedentes de sufrirlo o sufrir de ansiedad.

¿Cuáles son los síntomas más frecuentes?


Sin duda los de tipo físico como latido fuerte o rápido del corazón, sudor excesivo, escalofríos, temblores, problemas respiratorios, debilidad o mareos, hormigueo o entumecimiento de las manos, dolor en el pecho, dolor de estómago y náuseas.


Pero también hay síntomas psicológicos y cognitivos como: agobio, sensación de amenaza o peligro, ganas de huir o atacar, sensación de vacío, temor a perder el control, dificultad para tomar decisiones, sensación de confusión y preocupación excesiva. En casos más extremos, temor a la locura y la muerte.

¿Qué hacer ante un ataque de pánico?

Durante el ataque de pánico hay un exceso de adrenalina en el torrente sanguíneo, como consecuencia de un mensaje de alarma o sensación real o imaginaria de peligro. Cuando el cuerpo recibe esta cantidad de adrenalina aparecen los síntomas físicos descritos.


Malinterpretarlos puede causar que la respuesta de miedo aumente. Solo toma tres minutos en llegar al cerebro esa señal de emergencia, entonces necesitamos enviar otro mensaje al cerebro para que esa producción de adrenalina disminuya y comiencen a desaparecer poco a poco los síntomas físicos que tanto asustan.

La mejor forma de controlarlo:

•En vez de hiperventilar, respira más lento.

  • Hágalo en 3 tiempos: toma aire en 4 tiempos, retiene en dos tiempos y exhala en 4 tiempos. Piense en tiempos o segundos, la invitación es a distraer la mente, estamos cambiando la atención de sus síntomas desagradables hacia su cuerpo, enviar otro mensaje de calma haciendo la respiración más lenta.

1- Debe pensar en otra cosa.
2- Repítase frases tranquilizadoras: “no me voy a morir”, “no estoy sola o solo”, “esto lo puedo superar”, “estoy bien”, “me voy a sentir mejor”, “solo es un ataque de pánico”.
3- Detenga los pensamientos negativos.
4- También puede intentar realizar otra actividad, es decir, póngase a trabajar en algo.
5- Ubíquese en el aquí y ahora, y pregúntese:

  • ¿Dónde estoy?
  • ¿Qué olores hay a mi alrededor?
  • ¿Qué ropa llevo puesta?
  • ¿Cómo siento mis pies y mis manos?

• Si ud acompaña a alguien con un ataque de pánico, tómele la mano y con la otra dele un masaje en forma circular en el pecho e invítelo/a a respirar despacio y a repetirse frases que le den tranquilidad.
• Pero sin duda, lo más efectivo, es practicar la respiración lenta. Hágalo siempre… varias veces al día y luego, al salir del ataque de pánico busque ayuda especializada…

Yorelis Acosta

Twitter: @YorelisAco

Instagram: @CuideSuSaludMental

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