Miedos en Pandemia

A la grave crisis de salud física y la recesión económica generada por la pandemia, se suma la gran huella psicológica que nos dejará. Superarla va a depender de los recursos de afrontamiento que tengamos o desarrollemos.

Los efectos a corto plazo aparecieron las primeras semanas como miedos colectivos, ataques de pánico, comportamientos irracionales y compras compulsivas, shock, sensación de irrealidad, preocupaciones excesivas por el mundo, por nuestra salud y la de nuestros seres queridos, entre otros.

Pensamos en los adultos mayores como los más vulnerables; pero después de meses encerrados y haber cambiado abruptamente nuestras rutinas familiares, sociales y laborales y en general de vida, todos estamos afectados.

Nos sentimos agotados, vulnerables, y lo que más sorpresa ha generado en la población general es la inestabilidad emocional, sentir que un día no puedes levantarte de la cama, que el ánimo está por el piso y que hay que hacer grandes esfuerzos para mantenernos enfocados y motivados.

Aún aquellas personas que han logrado ver el lado positivo de la crisis y pueden estar trabajando desde sus hogares, han visto reducida su movilidad y disminuida la exposición a estímulos sensoriales naturales y saludables como tomar sol, caminar y socializar, y ya se están registrando afectaciones físicas y psicológicas como el “síndrome de la cabaña” generadas también por el encierro.

Miedos en pandemia - www.mariangelruiz.com
Miedos en pandemia – www.mariangelruiz.com

Estos meses de cambios abruptos han arrasaron con nuestro equilibrio emocional individual y social, dando origen a otra gran pandemia: la ansiedad con síntomas muy intensos y la aparición de miedos irracionales tipo fobias, algunos muy conocidos, así como otros nuevos.

Se habla de una fobia cuando la intensidad con la que se experimenta el miedo ante distintos peligros es injustificado, inoportuno, desmesurado e interfiere en la vida normal.

Veamos:

  • Miedo al contagio, se evitan situaciones en las que se siente peligro y posiblemente se estimulen rituales compulsivos para reasegurarnos que no se está contagiado.
  • Miedo a la enfermedad. Por ejemplo a toser, a tener fiebre y la aparición psicológica de otros síntomas físicos, lo que derivará en problemas de ansiedad.
  • Agorafobia, se evitan lugares públicos y/o tendencia a pasar mucho tiempo en casa por temor a que suceda algo. Puede estar vinculado a ataques de pánico.
  • Fobia social, trastorno de ansiedad ante situaciones que involucran el escrutinio público y se evita la interacción con otras personas.
  • Claustrofobia, miedo a los espacios cerrados.
  • Demofobia, fobia hacia la multitud.
  • Hipocondría, miedo excesivo a enfermarse y los consiguientes comportamientos irracionales.
  • Tanatofobia, miedo a la muerte.
  • Rupofobia, miedo a la suciedad.
  • Ecofobia, miedo a permanecer solo en casa.
  • Eremofobia, miedo a la soledad.
  • Afephobia o haptophobia es la incomodidad y repulsión al contacto físico.
  • Anuptafobia, miedo a quedarse soltero/a.
  • Incluso se está definiendo el coronafobia, caracterizado por la preocupación excesiva a contraer coronavirus, a querer hacerse las pruebas médicas o evitarlas.

Yorelis Acosta

Psicóloga Clínico y Social

Jefa del área sociopolítica del CENDES – UCV

Intagram: @cuidesusaludmental

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